uganda inflation

Uganda Inflation Rate: Latest Trends and 2023 Reports

9 mins read

Welcome to our latest blog post, where we delve into the intriguing world of Uganda's inflation rate, exploring its latest trends and shedding light on the most recent reports. Inflation, as a vital economic indicator, affects the daily lives of Ugandans and has broader implications for the country's economic stability. With our finger on the pulse of economic data and analysis, this blog aims to provide you with up-to-date information on Uganda's inflation rate, empowering you to understand its current state, potential consequences, and the factors driving these trends.

Join us on this informative journey as we unpack the latest developments in Uganda's inflation landscape, helping you stay informed and make informed decisions in an ever-changing economic environment.

Key Inflation Indicators

In Uganda, like in many other countries, several key economic indicators are used to measure and monitor inflation. These indicators provide insights into the economy's overall price levels and inflationary trends. Some of the primary inflation indicators in Uganda include:

  1. Consumer Price Index (CPI): The Consumer Price Index is one of the most widely used indicators to measure inflation. It tracks the changes in the prices of a basket of goods and services typically consumed by a representative sample of households. The CPI is calculated monthly and annually, providing information on the inflation rate.
  2. Producer Price Index (PPI): The Producer Price Index measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by producers for their goods and services. It reflects inflationary pressures at the production level, which can eventually impact consumer prices.
  3. Core Inflation: Core inflation excludes volatile items such as food and energy from the CPI. It provides a more stable measure of underlying inflation trends, as food and energy prices can be subject to significant short-term fluctuations.
  4. Food Inflation: Given the importance of food in the consumption basket of most Ugandans, tracking food price inflation is crucial. Food inflation can be a key driver of overall inflation in the country.
  5. Exchange Rate Movements: Changes in the exchange rate can impact the prices of imported goods and services. A depreciating currency can lead to higher import prices and contribute to inflationary pressures.
  6. Money Supply (M2): Monitoring the growth of the money supply, specifically the M2 measure, can provide insights into the potential inflationary pressures in the economy. Rapid growth in the money supply can be associated with inflation.
  7. Interest Rates: Central banks, like the Bank of Uganda, often use interest rates as a tool to control inflation. Therefore, monitoring changes in policy interest rates can provide clues about the central bank's stance on inflation.
  8. Inflation Expectations: Surveying households and businesses to gauge their expectations of future inflation can be valuable. Expectations can influence spending and investment decisions and impact inflation dynamics.
  9. Government Fiscal Policy: Government fiscal policies, including taxation and public spending changes, can affect inflation. Expansive fiscal policies can put upward pressure on inflation if they lead to increased government expenditures.
  10. Global Commodity Prices: Uganda is affected by changes in global commodity prices, particularly for oil and agricultural products. Fluctuations in these prices can have a direct impact on domestic inflation.

These indicators are regularly monitored by the Bank of Uganda and other relevant authorities to assess inflation trends and guide monetary policy decisions. Accurate and timely data on these indicators is crucial for policymakers, businesses, and consumers to make informed decisions and navigate the economic environment in Uganda.

Bank of Uganda (BOU)

The control of inflation rates in Uganda is primarily the responsibility of the Bank of Uganda, which is the country's central bank. Here's an overview of how the Bank of Uganda manages and controls the calculation of inflation rates:

1. Monetary Policy: The Bank of Uganda uses monetary policy tools to influence the money supply and, in turn, inflation. One of the essential tools is the policy interest rate, known as the Central Bank Rate (CBR). By adjusting the CBR, the central bank can encourage or discourage borrowing and lending among commercial banks, affecting the amount of money circulating in the economy.

  • Tightening Monetary Policy: If inflation rises and needs to be controlled, the central bank can raise the CBR. Higher interest rates make borrowing more expensive, which can reduce spending and investment, ultimately curbing inflationary pressures.
  • Easing Monetary Policy: Conversely, if economic growth is sluggish and inflation is too low, the central bank can lower the CBR to encourage borrowing and spending, thus stimulating economic activity.

2. Open Market Operations: The Bank of Uganda conducts open market operations, which involve buying or selling government securities in the open market. These operations can inject or withdraw money from the banking system, influencing interest rates and the money supply.

3. Reserve Requirements: The central bank can also adjust the reserve requirements for commercial banks. By changing the amount of money banks are required to hold in reserve, the central bank can influence the amount of money available for lending and spending in the economy.

4. Exchange Rate Policy: The exchange rate can also impact inflation, as changes in the value of the Ugandan shilling can affect the prices of imported goods. If necessary, the central bank may intervene in the foreign exchange market to stabilize the currency.

5. Economic Data and Analysis: The Bank of Uganda closely monitors economic data and conducts extensive analysis to assess the current state of the economy and inflationary pressures. This data-driven approach helps the central bank make informed decisions regarding its monetary policy stance.

6. Communication and Transparency: The central bank communicates its monetary policy decisions and objectives to the public, financial institutions, and government authorities. Transparency is crucial in managing inflation expectations and ensuring economic actors can be planned accordingly. In summary, the Bank of Uganda plays a pivotal role in controlling inflation rates through various monetary policy tools and strategies. Its actions aim to achieve price stability and foster sustainable economic growth in Uganda while keeping inflation within a target range set by the government.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) can influence inflation in Uganda indirectly through its policy recommendations, financial assistance programs, and technical assistance. Here's how the IMF's involvement can impact inflation in Uganda:

1. Policy Recommendations: When Uganda seeks financial assistance or engages in policy discussions with the IMF, the IMF often requires the government to implement specific economic policies and reforms as a condition for receiving financial support. These policy recommendations can encompass fiscal, monetary, and structural reforms.

  • Fiscal Policy: IMF may advise on fiscal policies like reducing budget deficits, improving public financial management, and enhancing tax collection. Proper fiscal management can help control inflation by ensuring that government spending does not lead to excessive money supply growth.
  • Monetary Policy: IMF can provide guidance on monetary policy, encouraging the central bank (Bank of Uganda) to maintain price stability and control inflation within a target range. It may recommend measures to control money supply growth, like adjusting interest rates or reserve requirements.
  • Structural Reforms: IMF may suggest structural reforms aimed at improving the efficiency and competitiveness of Uganda's economy. These reforms can include measures to enhance productivity, reduce supply-side constraints, and promote investment, which can impact inflation in the long run.

2. Financial Assistance Programs: Uganda may enter into financial assistance programs with the IMF during economic crises or balance of payments difficulties. The conditions attached to these programs often include economic and fiscal reforms to stabilise the economy. Successfully implementing these reforms can contribute to reducing inflationary pressures.

3. Technical Assistance: The IMF provides technical assistance to member countries, including Uganda, in various areas such as central banking, fiscal management, and statistics. This assistance can help strengthen the capacity of Ugandan institutions to manage their economy effectively and control inflation.

4. Surveillance and Reporting: The IMF regularly assesses Uganda's economic performance and publishes reports on its findings. These reports can influence investor and donor perceptions, which, in turn, can impact Uganda's access to international capital markets and the cost of borrowing. A stable economic environment can contribute to lower inflation expectations.

It's important to note that while the IMF can provide valuable guidance and support, the ultimate responsibility for managing inflation in Uganda lies with the country's government and its central bank. The IMF's role is advisory and supportive, and the effectiveness of its influence on inflation depends on Uganda's willingness and ability to implement the recommended policies and reforms.

The Annual Inflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index for Uganda for the 12 months to August 2023, is registered at 3.5 per cent compared to the 3.9 per cent registered in the year ended July 2023. The slowdown in the Annual Inflation is primarily attributed to the Annual Core inflation, which slowed to 3.3 per cent in the year ending August 2023 compared to 3.8 per cent registered in July 2023. The average inflation rate would rise to 5 per cent by 2028.

The main driver of Annual Core Inflation was the Annual Other Goods Inflation, which
registered 4.4 per cent in August 2023 compared to 4.8 per cent in July 2023.

The main drivers were Rice inflation, which registered 17.8 per cent in August 2023 compared to 24.6 per cent registered in July 2023, and Maize Flour inflation, which registered 1.0 per cent in August 2023 compared to 6.9 per cent registered in July 2023.

Dried Kapenta (Mukene) inflation registered at 22.3 per cent in August 2023 compared to 37.3 per cent recorded in July 2023, and Groundnuts (Pounded) inflation reported at 4.4 per cent in August 2023 compared to 16.2 per cent registered in July 2023.

Annual Services inflation dropped to 2.0 per cent in the year ending August 2023. Compared to 2.5 per cent registered in the year ended July 2023. This is due to a fall in Annual Passenger Transport Services inflation to negative 8.8 per cent in the year ending August 2023 compared to negative 7.0 per cent registered in July 2023.

Effects of Inflation on the Economy In Uganda

Inflation can have several effects on the economy of Uganda, a country that has experienced fluctuations in inflation rates over the years. Here's how inflation impacts Uganda's economy:

1. Purchasing Power and Consumer Welfare:

  • Negative Impact: High and sustained inflation erodes the purchasing power of the Ugandan shilling, reducing the real income of households. When consumers' purchasing power declines, they may be unable to afford the same quantity of goods and services they used to purchase, leading to a decrease in their overall financial conditions and standard of living.

2. Investment and Economic Growth:

  • Uncertainty: High or volatile inflation can create uncertainty in the economy. Businesses may hesitate to invest in long-term projects or expand their operations due to uncertainty about future prices and costs. This can slow down the economic growth rate and job creation.
  • Reduced Real Returns: High inflation can reduce the real returns on savings and investments, discouraging individuals and institutions from saving and investing in productive assets. This can hinder the accumulation of capital needed for economic development.

3. Interest Rates and Financial Markets:

  • Higher Interest Rates: The central bank may raise interest rates to combat inflation. Higher interest rates can increase borrowing costs for businesses and individuals, potentially reducing investment and consumer spending. It can also lead to reduced access to credit, impacting supply chains, particularly for small businesses.
  • Impact on Financial Markets: Inflation can impact financial markets, influencing the returns on various assets. For example, it can reduce the real returns on bonds and other fixed-income securities.

4. Foreign Exchange Rates:

  • Exchange Rate Impact: High inflation can pressure the exchange rate, potentially leading to the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling. This can impact the cost of imports, contributing to imported inflation.

5. Food Security:

  • Food Price Inflation: Uganda relies heavily on agriculture, and food inflation, especially in food prices, can affect food security and the well-being of rural populations. High food price inflation can lead to food affordability issues for many Ugandans.

6. Poverty and Income Inequality:

  • Impact on Vulnerable Populations: Inflation can disproportionately affect vulnerable populations, such as those with fixed incomes or low-wage workers. These individuals may struggle to keep up with rising prices, increasing poverty and income inequality.

7. Policy Responses:

  • Monetary Policy: High inflation often requires the central bank to pursue contractionary monetary policies, including raising interest rates. These policies can have short-term economic costs but are necessary to control inflation.
  • Fiscal Policy: Inflation can impact government finances. If prices rise, the real value of government expenditures may decline unless budgets are adjusted accordingly to the current level.

The effects of inflation on Uganda's economy can vary depending on the level and stability of inflation, as well as the policy responses implemented by the government and the central bank. High and volatile inflation can challenge economic stability, growth, and the well-being of Ugandan citizens, making effective inflation control an important policy objective.


In the ever-evolving economic landscape of Uganda, the latest reports on inflation reveal a compelling narrative. They are not just numbers on a page but the heartbeat of our financial health. As we navigate these trends, remember that inflation is a powerful force that shapes our economic destiny. Let's embrace this challenge with vigour, for in the story of Uganda's inflation lies the tale of our economic vitality.


How does inflation affect employment in Uganda?

High inflation can erode real wages, reducing the purchasing power of workers and potentially leading to demands for higher nominal wages. This can result in higher labour costs for businesses and, in some cases, lead to reduced employment or slower job creation.

Which country has the highest inflation rate?

Venezuela has the highest inflation rate at 400%, followed by Zimbabwe at 172%.

Which is the richest region in Uganda?

The central region of Uganda, which includes the capital city of Kampala, is generally considered the country's wealthiest and most economically developed area, owing to its commercial and administrative significance and higher levels of economic activity.

What is Uganda's biggest export?

Uganda's biggest export is coffee, particularly robusta coffee beans. It significantly contributes to the country's foreign exchange earnings and agricultural exports. Uganda's main export partners are Sudan (15 per cent), Kenya (10 per cent), DR Congo, Netherlands, Germany, South Africa and UAE.

Komala Rudra

Komala Rudra is a devoted mother and author who explores children's behavior and nutrition, offering valuable insights and practical guidance for parents and caregivers. Her writings aim to nurture healthy habits and stronger connections between parents and their little ones.

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