data privacy and scams in India

Guarding Against Fraud: The Rising Tide of Data Privacy Scams in India

Are you an Indian citizen with an Adhaar Card? Being an Indian citizen and not having an Adhaar is impossible. Right. What if you were told that all your data and biometrics are sold on the dark web? Yes, this is what happened in reality! 

Data privacy, also known as information privacy, protects personal data from unauthorised access, disclosure, use, modification, or destruction. It encompasses the rights of individuals to control their information and to determine how others use it. Here are some of the latest scams in India:

The Aadhaar Data Breach of 2023: A Breakdown

In October this year, a substantial security breach came to light, revealing a staggering compromise of personal information belonging to more than 815 million Indian citizens. This extensive data exposure encompassed sensitive details, including Aadhaar information, and the compromised data surfaced on the dark web. The incident served as a stark illustration of the susceptibility of India's biometric identification system, shedding light on the urgent need for enhanced security measures to safeguard the integrity and privacy of citizens' personal information. The breach was announced by cybersecurity firm, Resecurity, revealing that a hacker named "pwn0001" was offering access to the data for sale.

Exposed Information

The compromised data reportedly comprised the following details:

  • Names: Complete names of individuals.
  • Phone Numbers: Personal contact details.
  • Addresses: Residential addresses of individuals.
  • Aadhaar Numbers: Distinct identification numbers issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
  • Passport Information: Limited passport details for a specific group of individuals.

Data Source

The exact origin of the leaked data remains uncertain. Some experts suggest it may have originated from mobile operators or third-party vendors with access to Aadhaar data for verification purposes. Alternatively, others speculate it could result from a direct breach of the UIDAI database itself.

Impacts and Concerns

The Aadhaar data breach has sparked severe apprehensions regarding the security and privacy of sensitive personal information in India. Potential consequences encompass:

  • Identity Theft: Leaked Aadhaar details can facilitate impersonation and fraudulent activities, leading to financial losses and other harms.
  • Targeted Phishing Attacks: Scammers can employ phone numbers and addresses for more effective phishing attacks.
  • Social Engineering: Criminals can exploit personal information to gather further details about individuals, engaging in social engineering tactics for malicious purposes.
  • Erosion of Trust: The breach has significantly eroded public trust in the Aadhaar system, raising doubts about its effectiveness and security.

Government Response

In response to the breach, the Indian government has taken several measures, including:

  • Investigation: The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is actively probing the data breach to identify its source and hold those accountable.
  • Security Measures: UIDAI has implemented additional security measures to fortify the Aadhaar system and prevent future breaches.
  • Awareness Campaigns: The government is conducting awareness campaigns emphasising the importance of data security and urging individuals to take steps to safeguard their personal information.

Current Status

The investigation into the Aadhaar data breach is ongoing. While security enhancements have been implemented, the incident underscores India's need for sustained vigilance and robust data protection laws.

Additional Information

  • The complete extent of the data breach and the potential harm inflicted on individuals are still under investigation.
  • The incident sparked discussions about balancing security and convenience in biometric identification systems.
  • There is a growing demand for stringent data protection regulations in India to preserve individual privacy and prevent future occurrences of data breaches.

LockBit Ransomware Targets India's National Aerospace Laboratories

The infamous LockBit ransomware gang has claimed responsibility for a cyberattack targeting India's National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), the country's largest aerospace research organisation. This incident raises serious concerns about the vulnerability of critical infrastructure in India and highlights the need for robust cybersecurity measures.

  • LockBit added NAL to its dark web leak site on November 28, 2023.
  • The gang threatened to publish NAL's data if it failed to pay an unspecified ransom.
  • Reports suggest that LockBit may have stolen sensitive documents, including confidential letters, employee passports, and internal documents.
  • The extent of the damage and the nature of the stolen data are still under investigation.

Potential Implications

  • If sensitive data is leaked, it could harm national security and compromise confidential information about ongoing projects.
  • The attack could disrupt operations at NAL and delay important research and development activities.
  • The incident could erode public trust in the government's ability to protect critical infrastructure.

Responding to the Threat

NAL has confirmed the attack and is working with cybersecurity experts to investigate and mitigate the incident.

  • The Indian government is investigating the attack and taking steps to strengthen cybersecurity measures across critical infrastructure.
  • The incident underscores the need for increased awareness about cyber threats and the importance of implementing robust cybersecurity practices.

The QR Code scams

A recent report highlights the alarming rise of QR code scams in India, with over 20,662 cases registered between 2017 and May 31, 2023. This translates to a staggering 41% of all reported cases involving QR codes, malicious links, or debit/credit card fraud.

Fraudsters employ various tactics to deceive individuals.

  • Malicious QR code substitution: Scammers replace legitimate QR codes with malicious ones, often directing users to phishing websites where personal information and financial details are stolen.
  • Unsecured Wi-Fi hotspots: Cybercriminals set up fake Wi-Fi networks, enticing individuals with free internet access. Users unknowingly grant access to their devices and data upon connecting and scanning a QR code.
  • Phishing messages and emails: Scammers use social engineering tactics to lure victims into scanning QR codes embedded in messages or emails. These codes can lead to fake websites impersonating banks, government agencies, or other trusted entities.


  • Data breaches: According to the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), 12,427 cyber security incidents were reported in India in the first half of 2023. This is a 35% increase from the same period in 2022.
  • Malware: The National Cyber Security Alliance reports that India is the third-most targeted country by malware, with 1 in 54 devices infected.
  • Phishing: According to the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG), India accounted for 1.5% of all phishing attacks globally in the first quarter of 2023.
  • QR code scams: A report by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) found 20,662 cases of QR code scams registered in India between 2017 and May 31, 2023.
  • Financial scams: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) reports that 1.3 million cases of financial fraud were reported in India in 2022, resulting in losses of Rs. 24,374 crore.
  • Cybercrime: According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), 6,008 cybercrime cases were registered in India in 2022, a 57% increase from 2021.

It is important to note that data privacy regulations in India are still evolving. The new Digital Personal Data Protection Act is a significant step forward. Still, how it will be implemented and enforced remains to be seen. The Digital Personal Data Protection Act of 2023 is India's primary legislation governing data privacy. It was passed in August 2023 and is expected to be implemented soon. The Act grants individuals various rights over their data, including the right to access, correct, erase, and portability. 

Building a secure and trustworthy digital environment is crucial for India's continued digital growth and the well-being of its citizens. By addressing data privacy concerns and taking proactive measures to combat cybercrime, India can create a more secure and prosperous future for all.

Komala Rudra

Komala Rudra is a devoted mother and author who explores children's behavior and nutrition, offering valuable insights and practical guidance for parents and caregivers. Her writings aim to nurture healthy habits and stronger connections between parents and their little ones.

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